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Parents And Children Notes

Law Notes > Family Law Notes

This is an extract of our Parents And Children document, which we sell as part of our Family Law Notes collection written by the top tier of University Of New South Wales students.

The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Family Law Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

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FL e2 parents and children Table of Contents

1. Parents and Children a. Cases i. Bishop ii. Smythe iii. Goode iv. Mathieson v. Schenck vi. Re evelyn vii. Horman viii. Patsalou ix. Doyle x. B and R xi. Paisio xii. M v M xiii. Brown and Pedersen xiv. B and B xv. McCall v Calrk

Jurisdiction Act Parenting:

* Jurisdictional act: o FLA applies to a parenting disputes covering all kids o Whether or not parents have been married or have married or have separated or lived together

* How does this come about?
o Using marriage power + state referral. o Redrafted to cover all children. o Exception - where a child is under care of state welfare law - in Lambert's case -

* S 69ZK and s 65C

* Who can go to family court and present arguments about children?
o Either parent, or child, or any person with an interest in child's care welfare and development. o Can't just be a busybody. Note new language: 1 of 20

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FL 2 parents and children 2 of 20 Govt agreed. 1995 new terminology introduced in FLC. o What do Family lawyers talk about now? Instead of access rights, contact. o Guardianship replaced with 'parental responsibility' o And what replaced custody - instead the court was able to make a range of orders - including orders for residence, wasn't quite the same as old custody. Other aspects of decisionmaking responsibility.

Principles Intro to custody cases and provisions and look at 1 case.

* Custody cases o Dispute between parents o Can be no dispute between two parents but the child can also appeal. o Name that kids have - can be a dispute about this.

* Case on page 20 What kind of disputes can be litigated: eg education: Bishop

*Court's power to make parenting orders - extends to orders about "any aspect of the care, welfare or development of the child or any other aspect of parental responsibility for a child.": s 64B(2)(i).

* Court's statuory concern with welfare of child exmpowers it to exercise a far
seeing and overseeing jurisdiction over children even where orders for custody are made: Bishop

* In case where choices offered by mother/father as so divergent that future will be markedly affected court did intervene: at bottom of page 20 - 'in appropriate but very rare cases the question of where a child is to be educated is a proper matter or the court to consider. In my view, this is one of those rare cases, for the choices offered by the father and mother are so divergent that J's future will be markedly affected dependent upon which choice is preferred by the court. However evidence given that academic standards of school good and ballet school wasn't academically disastrous: Bishop 64B Meaning of parenting order and related terms (1) A parenting order is: (a) an order under this Part (including an order until further order) dealing with a matter mentioned in subsection (2); or (b) an order under this Part discharging, varying, suspending or reviving an order, or part of an order, described in paragraph (a). (2) A parenting order may deal with one or more of the following: 2 of 20

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FL 2 parents and children 3 of 20 (a) the person or persons with whom a child is to live; (b) the time a child is to spend with another person or other persons; (c) the allocation of parental responsibility for a child; (d) if 2 or more persons are to share parental responsibility for a child---the form of consultations those persons are to have with one another about decisions to be made in the exercise of that responsibility; (e) the communication a child is to have with another person or other persons; (f) maintenance of a child; (g) the steps to be taken before an application is made to a court for a variation of the order to take account of the changing needs or circumstances of: (i) a child to whom the order relates; or (ii) the parties to the proceedings in which the order is made; (h) the process to be used for resolving disputes about the terms or operation of the order; (i) any aspect of the care, welfare or development of the child or any other aspect of parental responsibility for a child. The person referred to in this subsection may be, or the persons referred to in this subsection may include, either a parent of the child or a person other than the parent of the child (including a grandparent or other relative of the child). Note: Paragraph (f)---a parenting order cannot deal with the maintenance of a child if the Child Support (Assessment) Act 1989 applies. (3) Without limiting paragraph (2)(c), the order may deal with the allocation of responsibility for making decisions about major longterm issues in relation to the child.

Overview to Pt VII What a parenting order is:

1. Parenting order? Under s 64B(1) EA, a parenting order is (a) an order under Part VII including an order until further order) dealing with a matter mentioned in subsection (2); or (b) an order changing an order described in s 64B(1)(a). What it may deal with under s 64B(2): (a) the person or persons with whom a child is to live; (b) the time a child is to spend with another person or other persons; (c) the allocation of parental responsibility for a child; (note that under s 64B(3) the order may deal with the allocation of 3 of 20

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FL 2 parents and children 4 of 20 responsibility for making decisions about major long-term issues in relation to the child) (d) if 2 or more persons are to share parental responsibility for a child
---the form of consultations those persons are to have with one another about decisions to be made in the exercise of that responsibility; (e) the communication a child is to have with another person or other persons; (f) maintenance of a child; (g) the steps to be taken before an application is made to a court for a variation of the order to take account of the changing needs or circumstances of: (i) a child to whom the order relates; or (ii) the parties to the proceedings in which the order is made; (h) the process to be used for resolving disputes about the terms or operation of the order; (i) any aspect of the care, welfare or development of the child or any other aspect of parental responsibility for a child. The person referred to in this subsection may be, or the persons referred to in this subsection may include, either a parent of the child or a person other than the parent of the child (including a grandparent or other relative of the child).

61D Parenting orders and parental responsibility (1) A parenting order confers parental responsibility for a child on a person, but only to the extent to which the order confers on the person duties, powers, responsibilities or authority in relation to the child. (2) A parenting order in relation to a child does not take away or diminish any aspect of the parental responsibility of any person for the child except to the extent (if any): (a) expressly provided for in the order; or (b) necessary to give effect to the order. Objects and principles from which Pt VII are to be applied: s 60B Paramount consideration when making an order : s 60CA

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Paramount consideration for a parenting order: s 60CA. In deciding whether to make a particular parenting order in relation to a child, a court must regard the best interests of the child as the paramount consideration: s 60CA FLA

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Objects

*Objects of Parents and Children Pt VII FLA as specified in s 60B FLA: The objects of this Part are to ensure that the best interests of children are met by: o (a) ensuring that children have the benefit of both of their parents having a meaningful involvement in their lives, to the maximum extent consistent with the best interests of the child; and o (b) protecting children from physical or psychological harm from being subjected to, or exposed to, abuse, neglect or family violence; and o (c) ensuring that children receive adequate and proper parenting to help them achieve their full potential; and o (d) ensuring that parents fulfil their duties, and meet their responsibilities, concerning the care, welfare and development of their children. Principles s 60B(2)

*
a) b)

c) d) e)

(2) The principles underlying these objects are that (except when it is or would be contrary to a child's best interests): children have the right to know and be cared for by both their parents, regardless of whether their parents are married, separated, have never married or have never lived together; and children have a right to spend time on a regular basis with, and communicate on a regular basis with, both their parents and other people significant to their care, welfare and development (such as grandparents and other relatives); and parents jointly share duties and responsibilities concerning the care, welfare and development of their children; and parents should agree about the future parenting of their children; and children have a right to enjoy their culture (including the right to enjoy that culture with other people who share that culture).

Determining best interests of Child Determining child's best interests: s 60CC

* Subject to subsection (5), in determining what is in the child's best interests, the court must consider the matters set out in subsections (2) and (3): s 60CC(1) Primary considerations

*(2)

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The primary considerations are: (a) the benefit to the child of having a meaningful relationship with both of the child's parents; and (b) the need to protect the child from physical or psychological harm from being subjected to, or exposed to, abuse, neglect or family violence. FL 2 parents and children 5 of 20

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FL 2 parents and children 6 of 20 Note:

Making these considerations the primary ones is consistent with the objects of this Part set out in paragraphs 60B(1)(a) and (b).

Additional considerations (3) Additional considerations are: (a) any views expressed by the child and any factors (such as the child's maturity or level of understanding) that the court thinks are relevant to the weight it should give to the child's views; (b) the nature of the relationship of the child with: (i) each of the child's parents; and (ii) other persons (including any grandparent or other relative of the child); (c) the willingness and ability of each of the child's parents to facilitate, and encourage, a close and continuing relationship between the child and the other parent; (d) the likely effect of any changes in the child's circumstances, including the likely effect on the child of any separation from: (i) either of his or her parents; or (ii) any other child, or other person (including any grandparent or other relative of the child), with whom he or she has been living; (e) the practical difficulty and expense of a child spending time with and communicating with a parent and whether that difficulty or expense will substantially affect the child's right to maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis; (f) the capacity of: (i) each of the child's parents; and (ii) any other person (including any grandparent or other relative of the child); to provide for the needs of the child, including emotional and intellectual needs; (g) the maturity, sex, lifestyle and background (including lifestyle, culture and traditions) of the child and of either of the child's parents, and any other characteristics of the child that the court thinks are relevant; (h) if the child is an Aboriginal child or a Torres Strait Islander child: (i) the child's right to enjoy his or her Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander culture (including the right to enjoy that culture with other people who share that culture); and (ii) the likely impact any proposed parenting order under this Part will have on that right; (i) the attitude to the child, and to the responsibilities of parenthood, demonstrated by each of the child's parents; (j) any family violence involving the child or a member of the child's family; (k) any family violence order that applies to the child or a member of 6 of 20

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