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Criminal Laws Notes

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HOMICIDES)etc.) MURDER&
CONSTRUCTIVE&MURDER&
MANSLAUGHTER&VOLUNTARY&
ASSAULT&CAUSING&DEATH&
ASSAULT&CAUSING&DEATH/INTOXICATED&
MANSLAUGHTER&INVOLUNTARY&
MANSLAUGHTER/CRIMINAL&NEGLIGENCE&
DANGEROUS&DRIVING&CAUSING&DEATH&
HOMICIDE&BY&OMISSION&
&&

DEFENCES&
INSANITY&
NON6INSANE&&&INSANE&AUTOMATISM&
SUBSTANTIAL&IMPAIRMENT&
INFANTICIDE&
SELF6DEFENCE&
INTOXICATION&
EXTREME&PROVOCATION&
&&

ASSAULTS)etc.&
COMMON&ASSAULT&
ASSAULT&CAUSING&ABH&
WOUND&OR&ABH&WITH&INTENT&
RECKLESS&GBH&OR&WOUNDING&
NEGLIGENT&INFLICTION&OF&GBH&
ATTEMPTED&MURDER&
DISCHARGING&FIREARM&WITH&INTENT&
CAUSING&DOG&TO&GBH/ABH&
USE&OF&EXPLOSIVES&TO&CAUSE&INJURY&
THROWING&ROCKS/OBJECTS&AT&VEHICLES&
ASSAULT/&INTENT&TO&COMMIT&INDICTABLE&
ASSAULTS&AT&SCHOOLS&ETC&
CHOKE,&SUFFOCATE,&STRANGLE&
&&

SEXUAL/INDECENT)ASSAULTS&
SPIKING&FOOD&OR&DRINK&
SEXUAL&ASSAULT&
AGGRAVATED&SEXUAL&ASSAULT&
AGGRAVATED&SEXUAL&ASSAULT/COMPANY&
INDECENT&ASSAULT&
AGGRAVATED&INDECENT&ASSAULT&
ACT&OF&INDECENCY&
AGGRAVATED&ACT&OF&INDECENCY&
&&
&
&

) 1) 6) 8) 9) 11) 12) 15) 17) 19) )) ) 21) 24) 26) 28) 29) 32) 33) )) ) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 43) 44) 44) 44) 45) 45) )) ) 46) 47) 49) 51) 52) 53) 55) 55) )) ) )

LARCENY)etc.&
LARCENY&
ROBBERY&
AGGRAVATED&ROBBERY&&
AGGRAVATED&ROBBERY&WITH&WOUNDING&
ROBBERY&IN&COMPANY&
ROBBERY&WITH&ARMS/WOUNDING&
BREAK&AND&ENTER&OFFENCES&
RECEIVING&STOLEN&PROPERTY&
FRAUD&

) 56) 57) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65)

&
JO)JOINT)CRIMINAL)ENTERPRISE&
JOINT&CRIMINAL&ENTERPRISE&
EXTENDED&JOINT&CRIMINAL&ENTERPRISE&&
ACCESSORIAL&LIABILITY&
ACCESSORIES&AFTER&THE&FACT&
CONSPIRACY&

) 67) 69) 70) 75) 77)

&
JO)SENTENCING&
SENTENCING&

&

) 79)

MURDER&
Crimes'Act'1900' Statute&

s.&18&
1)! a)&&&Murder&shall&be&taken&to&have&been&committed&where&the&act&of&the&accused,&or&thing&by&him&
or& her& omitted& to& be& done,& causing& the& death& charged,& was& done& or& omitted& with& reckless&
indifference& to& human& life,& or& with& intent& to& kill& or& inflict& grievous& bodily& harm& upon& some&
person,&or&done&in&an&attempt&to&commit,&or&during&or&immediately&after&the&commission,&by&the&
accused,&or&some&accomplice&with&him&or&her,&of&a&crime&punishable&by&imprisonment&for&life&or&
for&25&years.&
b)! Every&other&punishable&homicide&shall&be&taken&to&be&manslaughter.&&
&
2)! a)&No&act&or&omission&which&was&not&malicious,&or&for&which&the&accused&had&lawful&&&cause&or&
excuse,&shall&be&within&this&section.&
b)! No& punishment& or& forfeiture& shall& be& incurred& by& any& person& who& kills& & & & & another& by&
misfortune&only.&
&
General&
Murder&requires:&
Principles&

1.! An&act&or&omission&&

2.! Causing&death&&

3.! With&reckless&indifference&or&intent&to&kill&or&commit&GBH&(s&4)&(subjective&test,&actual&person&
state&of&mind)&OR&an&attempt&during/immediately&after&a&crime&with&a&punishment&of&25&yrs&
to&life&(constructive&murder)&
&
Burden&of&Proof& Crown&must&prove&BRD&that,&at&the&time&[he/she]&did&the&deliberate&act&which&caused&the&death&of&
[the&deceased],&[the&accused]&had&an&intention&to&kill&the&deceased,&or&an&intention&to&inflict&grievous&
bodily&harm&upon&[him/her],&or&that&the&act&which&caused&death&was&done&with&reckless&indifference&
to&human&life&
&
Actus&Reus&
s.18&1(a):&"where&the&act&of&the&accused,&or&thing&by&him&or&her&omitted&to&be&done,&causing&the&death&
charged"&
!! An&act&or&omission&
!! Voluntariness:&a&voluntary&act&by&the&accused,&a&deliberate&or&willed&act&
!! Causation:&the&act&must&cause&the&death&-&the&substantial&and&operating&cause&
!! Possibility&of&a&charge&of&attempt&if&person&does&not&die&
&
&
Substantial&and&operating&cause&
&
Smith'(1959):'QB:&'if&the&original&wound&is&still&an&operating&cause&and&a&substantial&cause&then&the&
death&can&properly&be&said&to&be&the&result&of&the&wound;&albeit&that&some&other&cause&of&death&is&
operating…only&if&the&second&cause&is&so&overwhelming&as&to&make&the&original&wound&merely&part&of&
the&history&can&it&be&said&that&death&does&not&flow&from&the&wound&
!! This&test&applied&in&R'v'Grimes'and'Lee'NSW:&The&deceased&jumped&from&train&in&order&to&escape&
the&accused&who&had&assaulted&and&robbed&him&
&
Causation&
&
Royall'(1991):&If,&at&the&time&of&death,&the&defendant's&act&was&a&substantial&and&operating&cause&
of&the&death,&then&the&defendant&will&be&deemed&as&causing&that&death&&
&
Royall'(1991);'Hallet'[1969]:'This&extends&to&a&situation&where&the&act&of&the&defendant&brought&
about&a&further&event&(e.g.&exposing&the&victim&to&a&new&danger,&causing&the&defendant&to&take&
certain&actions)&which&actually&caused&his&death&&
&

1

Pagett'(1983):&This&also&extends&to&any&acts&done&'involuntarily',&or&in&selfMdefence,&in&response&to&
the&defendant's&action&&
Hallet'[1969]:&The&chain&of&causation&will&only&be&broken&if&a&completely&coincidental&event&has&
occurred,&such&as&an&act&of&god&or&if&the&victim&completely&overreacted&(Royall&(1991)).&
&
R'v'Smith&[1959]:&If&there&are&additional&wounds&to&the&original&wound,&but&"only&if&it&can&be&said&
that&the&original&wounding&is&merely&the&setting&in&which&another&cause&operates&can&it&be&said&that&
the&death&does&not&result&from&the&wound…only&if&the&second&cause&is&so&overwhelming&as&to&make&
the&original&wound&merely&part&of&the&history&can&it&be&said&that&the&death&does&not&flow&from&the&
wound."&
&
Causation:&Intervening&Acts&
&
Hallet'[1969]:&Deceased&died&from&drowning;&however&prior&to&this&Hallet&had&assaulted&and&
choked&him,&left&him&unconscious&but&moving&on&his&back&with&feet&in&water.&
!! Only&if&the&victim&consciously&entered&the&water&could&the&chain&of&causation&be&broken.&The&
act&of&the&accused&rendered&the&victim&unconscious&with&violence&which&originated&the&chain&of&
causation.&The&tide&coming&in&did&not&break&the&chain&as&it&was&an&ordinary&operation&of&natural&
causes&
!! Chain&of&causation&could&not&be&broken&by&Hallet's&omission&to&take&further&measures&for&the&
safety&of&the&deceased,&even&if&such&omissions&were&contrary&to&his&original&intention&and&were&
excused&by&his&inadvertently&falling&asleep.&
&
Intervening&Act:&Done&in&SelfMPreservation&
&
R'v'Grimes'and'Lee&(1894):&It&is&enough&that&the&victim's&apprehension&of&danger&is&well_founded&
and&reasonable;&there&is&no&requirement&for&the&steps&taken&for&escape&to&be&reasonable.&&
' R'v'Pitts'(1842);&R'v'Pagett'(1983):'A&reasonable&act&performed&for&the&purpose&of&self&
preservation&in&attempting&to&escape&the&violence&of&the&accused&does&not&break&the&chain&of&
causation.&In&this&context,&'reasonable'&means&reasonable&in&the&light&of&the&accused's&conduct&and&
the&apprehension&of&danger&which&it&induced&in&the&mind&of&the&victim.&
&
Royall&(1991):&Determining&whether&or&not'the&act&of&self&preservation&is&reasonable&turns&on&the&
nature&and&extent&of&the&wellMfounded&apprehension&of&lifeMthreatening&violence;&the&intervening&
act&does&not&need&to&be&reasonably&foreseeable&
&
Rik'[2004]:'A&person&in&fear&may&make&a&quick&decision;&whether&the&response&of&the&deceased&was&
reasonable&or&proportionate&in&the&circumstances&are&questions&for&the&jury.&
&
Breaking&the&chain&of&causation:&acts&of&the&deceased&
' Burns'[2012]:&Absent&intimidation,&mistake&or&other&vitiating&factor,&what&an&adult&of&sound&mind&
does&is&not&in&law&treated&as&having&been&caused&by&another.&
&
Blaue'[1975]&Eng&CA&
!! Balue&stabbed&victim;&victim&refused&blood&transfusion&at&hospital&due&to&religious&beliefs&"&died&
!! TJ& Acquitted& of& murder& on& grounds& of& diminished& responsibility,& convicted& of& manslaughter& +&
wounding&w/&intent&to&do&GBH&+&indecent&assault&
!! Appealed& manslaughter& conviction;& if& successful,& applied& for& leave& to& appeal& wounding&
conviction&
!! HELD:&The&fact&that&the&victim&refused&to&transfusion&(knowing&this&would&result&in&her&death)&did&
not&break&chain&of&causation;&the&question&was&what&caused&the&death,&the&answer&was&the&stab&
wounds.&
&

2

Intervening&acts:&medical&treatment&

Mens&Rea&

&
Jordan&(1956):&"palpably&wrong"&medical&treatment&broke&the&chain&of&causation.&
&
Smith&[1959]:&Victim&suffered&two&bayonet&wounds&inflicted&by&the&accused&[Smith],&one&pierced&
his&lung&and&suffered&hemorrhage.&While&being&carried&to&a&medical&station,&he&was&accidently&
dropped&twice,&then&given&the&wrong&treatment.&Applied&Jordan'(1956)&M&treatment&by&doctors&did&
not&break&chain&of&causation.&&
' Malcherek'and'Steel'[1981]'English:'Disconnecting&life&support&did&not&break&chain;&original&injury&
still&operating&cause&
' Cheshire'[1991]:&Considered&what&degree&of&medical&negligence&is&required&to&override&the&original&
injury&
!! Must&be&"so&independent&of&the&acts&and&in&itself&potent&to&causing&death"&
!! Only&reckless,&not&negligent&or&incompetent,&medical&treatment&was&sufficient&to&
break&the&chain&of&causation&
&
Murder&by&Omission&
&
**See&separate&section&on&Homicide&by&Omission**&
&
s.18&1(a)&"was&done&or&omitted&with&reckless&indifference&to&human&life,&or&with&intent&to&kill&or&inflict&
grievous&bodily&harm&upon&some&person&or&done&in&an&attempt&to&commit,&or&during&or&immediately&
after&the&commission,&by&the&accused,&or&some&accomplice&with&him&or&her,&of&a&crime&punishable&by&
imprisonment&for&life&or&for&25&years."&
&
&
!! Intent&to&kill&OR&intent&to&inflict&GBH&(refers&to&the&accused's&actual&state&of&mind&_&subjective)&
!! Reckless&indifference&to&human&life&&
&
INTENTION&
&
"Intent&and&intention&are&very&familiar&words.&In&the&legal&context&in&which&we&are&considering&them,&
they&carry&their&ordinary&everyday&meaning.&A&person's&intention&may'be'inferred'or'concluded'from' the'circumstances'in'which'the'death'occurred'and'from'the'conduct'of'the'accused'person'before,' at'the'time'of,'or'after'he'or'she'did'the'specific'act'which'caused'the'death&of&the&deceased.&In&
some&cases,&a&person's&acts&may&provide&the&most&convincing&evidence&of&his&or&her&intention&at&the&
time.&Where&a&specific&result&is&the&obvious&and&inevitable&consequence&of&a&person's&act,&and&where&
the&person&deliberately&does&that&act,&you&may&readily&conclude&that&he&or&she&did&that&act&with&the&
intention&of&achieving&that&particular&result."&
(Judicial&Commission&of&NSW,&Criminal&Trial&Courts&Bench&Book)&&
&
GREVIOUS&BODILY&HARM&
&
Crimes'Act'1900'(NSW)&s&4:&
"Grievous&bodily&harm"&includes:&&
(a)&the&destruction&(other&than&in&the&course&of&a&medical&procedure)&of&the&foetus&of&a&pregnant&
woman,&whether&or&not&the&woman&suffers&any&other&harm,∧&
(b)&any&permanent&or&serious&disfiguring&of&the&person,∧&
(c)&any&grievous&bodily&disease&(in&which&case&a&reference&to&the&infliction&of&grievous&bodily&harm&
includes&a&reference&to&causing&a&person&to&contract&a&grievous&bodily&disease)."&
&
!! Any&'really&serious'&injury&will&fall&into&this&category&(DPP&v&Smith&(1961);&Haoui&(2008)&NSWCCA&
&

3

RECKLESS&INDIFFERENCE&

Penalty&

Defences&
&

&
!! If&you&commit&a&fatal&act&knowing&that&it&will&probably&cause&death&you&are&just&as&blameworthy&
as&if&you&had&intended&to&murder.&&
!! It&is&not&your&indifference&to&the&act&that&constitutes&MR&but&your&knowledge&about&the&probable&
consequences.&&
&
Common&Law:&&
&
Crabbe'(1985)&-&"It&should&now&be&regarded&as&settled&law&in&Australia&that&if&a&person&does&an&act&
knowing&that&it&is&probable&that&death&or&GBH&will&result&is&guilty&of&murder.&It&is&not&enough&that&he&
does&the&act&knowing&that&it&is&possible&but&not&likely&that&death&or&GBH&might&result"&
&
In&NSW:&in&Royall'(1991)&the&HC&held&that&the&decision&in&Crabbe&applies&to&the&reckless&indifference&
MR&requirement&in&s.18.&BUT,&under&this&legislation&the&prosecution&must&prove&the&accused&foresaw&
the& probability& of& death.& Foresight& for& GBH& not& sufficient& MR& for& murder.& In& these& cases& the&
defendant&would&be&guilty&of&manslaughter.&Trial&judges&need&to&direct&on&difference&between&intent&
and&reckless&indifference&&
&
POSSIBILITY&/&PROBABILITY&
&
!! There&is&a&big&difference&between&asking&whether&the&accused&knew&that&death&was&probable&or&
if&there&was&a&possibility.&
!! A&defendant&is&guilty&of&reckless&indifference&to&human&life&if&s/he&foresaw&the&probability&(as&
opposed&to&possibility)&of&his/her&actions&resulting&in&death&(as&opposed&to&grievous&bodily&harm):&
Annakin&(1988)&&
&
IRRELEVANCE&OF&METHOD&CAUSING&DEATH&
' Royall'(1991):&Provided&one&of&the&mental&states&required&for&murder&was&present,&and&test&for&
causation&is&satisfied,&it&does&not&matter&that&accused&did&not&intend&the&precise&way&&in&which&the&
death&actually&occurred.&
&
&
Mandatory&Life&imprisonment&
' Crimes'(Homicide)'Amendment'Act'1982:&in&limited&circumstances&trial&judge&has&a&discretion&to&
sentence&less&than&life&(provocation)&
"&Is&"the&person's&culpability&significantly&diminished&by&mitigating&circumstances?"&if&yes,&then&
there&is&a&discretion&to&impose&a&lesser&sentence&(manslaughter)&
&
s&19A:&punishment&for&murder&is&life&imprisonment;&but&&
s&21(1)&of&Crimes'(Sentencing'Procedure)'Act'1999'permits&mitigating&factors&to&be&taken&into&
account&in&sentencing&_&court&discretion&&
&
s&19B:&life&imprisonment&for&murder&of&Police&Officer,&in&certain&circumstances&&
&
Standard&nonMparole&periods:&20&yrs&for&murder,&25&yrs&in&some&instances&(eg&when&victim&a&police&
officer&or&under&18&yrs&of&age)&
&
s&21:&Child&murder&by&motherMverdict&of&contributing&to&death:&10&yrs&imprisonment&
&
&
Partial&Defences&Available:&
&

4

**See&separate&
section&on&
defences&&&
defence&table&
for&more&
detail**&

Other&(Policy&
Considerations&
etc.)&

!! Self&Defence&(NB&partial&only&in&case&of&homicide,&complete&defence&for&everything&else)&
!! Extreme&Provocation&
!! Substantial&impairment&of&abnormality&of&the&mind&&
&
Complete&Defences&Available:&
&
!! Insanity&or&mental&illness&
!! Insane&Automatism&
!! Intoxication&
!! Sane&Automatism&
&
Liability&of&Medical&Profession&
&
Dyson'[1908]:&if&someone&hastens&a&death,&they&are&responsible&in&law&for&causing&it&&
&
Adams&[1957]:&If&medical&treatment&could&not&restore&the&health&of&a&terminally&ill&patient,&the&
practitioner&was&entitled&to&do&all&that&was&necessary&and&proper&to&relieve&the&patient's&suffering,&
even&if&the&measures&taken&incidentally&shortened&the&life&of&the&patient&by&hours&or&longer.&&
&
St'George's'NHS'Trust'v'S&[1998]:&an&adult&of&sound&mind&entitled&to&refuse&treatment&or&to&have&it&
terminated.&&
' Hunter'and'New'England'Health'Service'v'A&[2009]:&Self_determination&prevails&over&the&state's&
interest&of&preserving&life.&
&
R'(Burke)'v'General'Medical'Council'[2006]:&If&a&patient&is&competent&and&opts&for&continued&life_ sustaining&treatment,&then,&at&least&where&this&simply&involves&nutrition&and&hydration,&the&
patient's&wishes&must&be&respected.&If&a&doctor&removed&the&artificial&nutrition&and&hydration,&the&
doctor&would&be&guilty&of&murder.&
&
Northridge'v'Central'Sydney'Area'Health'Service&(2000):&recognised&the&parens&patriae&jurisdiction&
of&the&NSWSC&"to&act&to&protect&the&right&of&an&unconscious&person&to&receive&ordinary&reasonable&
and&appropriate&(as&opposed&to&extraordinary,&excessively&burdensome,&intrusive&or&futile)&medical&
treatment,&sustenance&and&support".&This&included&administration&of&antibiotics&and&appropriate&
feeding.&
&
Messiha'(by'his'tutor'Mghdy'Massiha)'v'South'East'Health&[2004]:&The&court&will&defer&to&medical&
experts&when&determining&what&is&appropriate&medical&treatment,&not&families.&
&
Euthanasia&
&
Currently,&even&in&situations&where&a&person&is&competent&to&make&a&decision&and&consents&to&
having&their&life&terminated,&those&who&help&bring&about&their&death&are&guilty&of&homicide&or&
aiding&and&abetting&suicide,&depending&on&what&part&they&actually&play&in&the&events&leading&up&to&
the&death.&The&consent&of&the&deceased&is&no&defence.&Euthanasia&is&covered&the&Crimes&Act&1900:&
&
s&31C(1):&'A&person&who&aids&or&abets&the&suicide&or&attempted&suicide&of&another&person&shall&be&
liable&to&imprisonment&for&10&years.'&An&offence&under&s&31C(1)&is&committed&where&someone&
supplies&the&deceased&with&drugs&designed&to&bring&about&their&death.&&
s&31C(2):&&
(1)! A&person&who&aids&or&abets&the&suicide&or&attempted&suicide&of&another&person&shall&be&
liable&to&imprisonment&for&10&years.&&
(2)! Where:&&
a)! a&person&incites&or&counsels&another&person&to&commit&suicide,&and&&

5

b)! that&other&person&commits,&or&attempts&to&commit,&suicide&as&a&consequence&of&that&
incitement&or&counsel,&the&first&mentioned&person&shall&be&liable&to&imprisonment&for&5&
years.&
&
Justins&[2008]:Victim&had&Alzheimer's&disease;&his&de&facto&provided&the&drug&he&used&to&commit&
suicide.&Held&that&if&he&did&not&have&the&capacity&to&commit&suicide&because&of&his&mental&illness,&
then&the&accused&caused&his&death&by&making&the&drug&available&to&him.&If&he&had&the&capacity,&then&
she&was&neither&guilty&of&manslaughter&or&murder&because&she&had&not&completed&the&actus&reus&of&
homicide.&
&
Airedale'NHS'Trust'v'Bland&[1993]:&Distinguished&discontinuation&of&treatment&from&actively&
bringing&a&patient's&life&to&an&end&as&the&law&does&not&authorise&euthanasia.&&
&
Criminal'Code'Amendment'(Suicide'Related'Material'Offences)'Act'2005&(Cth):&
It&is&a&crime&to:&&
(a)&to&use&the&internet,&among&other&devices&to&access,&or&distribute&material&that&counsels&or&
incites&suicide&or&promotes&or&provides&instruction&on&a&particular&method&of&committing&suicide,&
regardless&of&whether&or&not&this&induces&attempts&to&commit&suicide&(s474.29A).&&
(b)&produce,&supply&or&possess&material&of&this&kind&with&a&view&to&the&commission&of&an&offence&(s&

474.29A).&&
(c)&The&maximum&penalty&is&1000&penalty&units.&
&

CONSTRUCTIVE&MURDER&
Crimes'Act'1900' Statute&

s18&1&(a)&Crimes'Act':&If&a&murder&is&committed&"in&an&attempt&to&commit,&or&during&or&immediately&
after&the&commission,&by&the&accused,&or&some&accomplice&with&him&or&her,&of&a&crime&punishable&
by&imprisonment&for&life&or&for&25&years."&
&
General&Principles& &
Burden&of&Proof&

Actus&Reus&

Crown&must&identify&the&act&causing&death&and&prove&BRD&that&it&was&a&voluntary&or&willed&act&of&
the&accused&or&his&or&her&accomplice.&
&
Prosecution&does&not&have&to&prove&the&defendant&"realised&death&or&any&other&consequence&was&
a&possible&result&of&his&or&her&actions,&or&that&a&reasonable&person&would&have&appreciated&such&a&
risk"&(Munro;'Bowden'(1981))&"&the&act&causing&death&still&must&be&voluntary&
&
The&prosecution&does&NOT&need&to&prove&ill_will&or&premeditation&(malice&aforethought)&to&obtain&
a&murder&conviction.&&
&
In&cases&where&accident&is&no&basis&for&acquittal,&the&burden&is&on&the&accused&will&need&to&raise&
the&voluntariness&issue.&An&involuntary&act&will&lead&to&an&accidental&consequence&and&the&easier&
line&of&defence&will&be&based&on&a&no&mens&rea&argument.&
&
&
!! Commission&of&an&offence&with&a&max&penalty&of&25&yrs&imprisonment,&where&crime&occurs&
during&or&immediately&after,&causing&death.&
&
Examples:&&

•! s&33:&Wounding&with&intent&to&cause&GBH&

•! s&33(2):&Wounding&with&intent&to&resist&arrest&

•! s&33A(2)&Discharging&a&firearm&with&intent&to&resist&arrest&&

•! s&61JA:&Aggravated&sexual&assault&in&company&

6

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